ArchiveAugust 2020

BRIEF REVIEW: The physical demands of mixed martial arts: A narrative review using the ARMSS model to provide a hierarchy of evidence


Christopher Kirk , David R Clark , Carl Langan-Evans & James P Morton Journal of Sports Sciences 2020;23-1 BACKGROUND The optimal preparation for any sport depends in part on the known determinants of success and the methods employed to achieve these determinants. As mixed martial arts (MMA) is a relatively new sport, the research base related to its performance factors is still in its...

BRIEF REVIEW: Hip & Lumbar Range of Motion and Lower Back Pain


BACKGROUND Most musculoskeletal injury is multifaceted, with biomechanics, i.e. the way we move, one potential aspect that may lead to the occurrence of either a gradual-onset or acute-onset injury. It is thought that suboptimal biomechanics (tightness, weakness, impaired motor control etc.) in certain areas of the body may lean to increased mechanical load in other areas.  The prevalence of...

BRIEF REVIEW: Sport Psychology in Mixed Martial Arts


BACKGROUND  The effectiveness of sports psychology interventions, or “psychological skills training” has been demonstrated in many sports. The aim of this study was to perform a review of studies directly related to sports psychology in MMA.  METHODS The terms “mixed mart arts” and “ultimate fighting” were searched in combination with: “Psychology”, “Sport Psychology”, “Exercise Psychology”...

Measurement of Wrist Motion in the Punch


BACKGROUND  Hand and wrist injuries are the most commonly reported injuries in boxing. Previous studies have looked at shoulder and elbow joint angles in punching, but none have investigated movement at the wrist METHODS An 6-degree-of-freedom electromagnetic tracking system was used to measure wrist movement during punching, which was compared to a mechanical surrogate and static wrist angle...

SHORT REVIEW: How Effective is Rapid Weight Loss in MMA?


BACKGROUND  Rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight gain strategies are commonly employed by combat sports athletes of all disciplines. The amount of weight lost and subsequently gained is generally greater in MMA athletes than other combat athletes  Previous studies have shown the amount of weight regained to be predictive of success in judo, but not in boxing. One small study in MMA athletes...

SHORT REVIEW: Anatomy of a Strangulation


BACKGROUND  Vascular neck restraint (VNR) is a common method of both submission in combat sports such as jiu jitsu and MMA, as well as a controversial restraint technique used by law enforcement officers. The ultimate objective with VNR is to induce a loss of consciousness (LOC). The common understanding in terms of mechanism of LOC is that the internal branches of the carotid arteries on each...

SHORT REVIEW: Ocular Injury Model in Boxing


  BACKGROUND  Due to the nature of boxing and other combat sports, structural damage to the facial region, including the eyes, is common. Because of this, it is thought that boxing poses a high risk of altered visual acuity. Whilst epidemiological studies have investigated the occurrence of facial and eye injuries, there have not yet been any studies recreating the biomechanics of punching...



The rehabilitation of musculoskeletal conditions is a multi-faceted process that needs to be tailored to the individual patient and needs to take into account personal factors as well as address all relevant contributing factors to the condition. As the primary goal of most patients undergoing rehabilitation is to decrease pain levels, it appears logical that the modalities and intervention...



BACKGROUND  The ability to pace oneself in any physical activity (whether in training or competition) is critical to achieving successful competition results, as well as training in a fashion conducive to optimal outcomes and minimising the risk of overtraining. For endurance training modalities, developing a pacing strategy is fairly straightforward. In multi-faceted activities such as combat...



BACKGROUND  Creatine is one of the most well-researched and commonly used athletic ergogenic aids. It is known to positively benefit singular and repeated high intensity bouts of exercise, muscular endurance, and hypertrophic and strength adaptations to resistance exercise.  METHODS The authors of this study primarily applied findings of creatine research in related topics  to discuss potential...

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